Month: February 2017

Boo! It’s Good For You

Today is Halloween, the holiday full of tricks and treats and all things frightening and fun. But what happens when you trade your sweets for a scare? The result is way healthier than candy.

Decorations like jack-o-lanterns are used to both entertain and spook people on Halloween.

The Positives of Fear

Being frightened can be good for you. Think about your favorite scary book or movie. What happens when something goes bump in the night, or a door creaks or slams, or glass shatters? It often makes us jump. This reaction is provoked by fear.

Fear makes your brain flood with healthy chemical substances that excite your mood and release feelings of euphoria, or great excitement. According to Dr. Margee Kerr, a sociologist who studies fear, this “powerful chemical punch” includes endorphins and dopamine—a natural compound in the body that creates feelings of happiness.

When you’re spooked, your body also produces a chemical called oxytocin. This hormone helps people bond with one another. When people share the experience of being scared, it can make them feel closer. So, if you’re at a haunted house with some pals, that experience can help solidify your friendship. “Watch people walking out of a haunted house, and you’ll see lots of smiles and high fives,” Kerr says.

A Healthy Scare

There is also some evidence that being scared can help a person manage stressful situations. Things like giving a presentation in front of your class or performing in a school play can make us fearful and anxious. But these experiences help build a sort of endurance to fear that makes us more confident. “You become more comfortable with the physical experience of fear, and so you’re better able to work though it during tense situations,” Kerr explains.

Though some haunting may be healthy, it’s important to remember that people experience fear in different ways. What may be fun for one person could be too scary for another. And Kerr notes that kids younger than six and or seven can’t separate real and make-believe, so seeing something frightening could have lasting, negative effects.

But for most people who are old enough, a little “boo” now and then isn’t so bad. In fact, it may be positively spook-tacular.

Indonesia is burning

I’ve often wondered how the media would respond when eco-apocalypse struck. I pictured the news programmes producing brief, sensational reports, while failing to explain why it was happening or how it might be stopped. Then they would ask their financial correspondents how the disaster affected share prices, before turning to the sport. As you can probably tell, I don’t have an ocean of faith in the industry for which I work. What I did not expect was that they would ignore it.

A great tract of Earth is on fire. It looks as you might imagine hell to be. The air has turned ochre: visibility in some cities has been reduced to 30 metres. Children are being prepared for evacuation in warships; already some have choked to death. Species are going up in smoke at an untold rate. It is almost certainly the greatest environmental disaster of the 21st century – so far.

And the media? It’s talking about the dress the Duchess of Cambridge wore to the James Bond premiere, Donald Trump’s idiocy du jour and who got eliminated from the Halloween episode of Dancing with the Stars. The great debate of the week, dominating the news across much of the world? Sausages: are they really so bad for your health?

What I’m discussing is a barbecue on a different scale. Fire is raging across the 5,000km length of Indonesia. It is surely, on any objective assessment, more important than anything else taking place today. And it shouldn’t require a columnist, writing in the middle of a newspaper, to say so. It should be on everyone’s front page. It is hard to convey the scale of this inferno, but here’s a comparison that might help: it is currently producing more carbon dioxide than the US economy. And in three weeks the fires have released more CO2 than the annual emissions of Germany.

Helicoptering water on to Indonesia's forest fires
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‘The great debate of the week, dominating the news across much of the world? Sausages: are they really so bad for your health?’ Photograph: Abdul Qodir/AFP/Getty

But that doesn’t really capture it. This catastrophe cannot be measured only in parts per million. The fires are destroying treasures as precious and irreplaceable as the archaeological remains being levelled by Isis. Orangutans, clouded leopards, sun bears, gibbons, the Sumatran rhinoceros and Sumatran tiger, these are among the threatened species being driven from much of their range by the flames. But there are thousands, perhaps millions, more.

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One of the burning provinces is West Papua, a nation that has been illegally occupied by Indonesia since 1963. I spent six months there when I was 24, investigating some of the factors that have led to this disaster. At the time it was a wonderland, rich with endemic species in every swamp and valley. Who knows how many of those have vanished in the past few weeks? This week I have pored and wept over photos of places I loved that have now been reduced to ash.

Nor do the greenhouse gas emissions capture the impact on the people of these lands. After the last great conflagration, in 1997, there was a missing cohort in Indonesia of 15,000 children under the age of three, attributed to air pollution. This, it seems, is worse. The surgical masks being distributed across the nation will do almost nothing to protect those living in a sunless smog. Members of parliament in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) have had to wear face masks during debates. The chamber is so foggy that they must have difficulty recognising one another.

It’s not just the trees that are burning. It is the land itself. Much of the forest sits on great domes of peat. When the fires penetrate the earth, they smoulder for weeks, sometimes months, releasing clouds of methane, carbon monoxide, ozone and exotic gases such as ammonium cyanide. The plumes extend for hundreds of miles, causing diplomatic conflicts with neighbouring countries.

Why is this happening? Indonesia’s forests have been fragmented for decades by timber and farming companies. Canals have been cut through the peat to drain and dry it. Plantation companies move in to destroy what remains of the forest to plant monocultures of pulpwood, timber and palm oil. The easiest way to clear the land is to torch it. Every year, this causes disasters. But in an extreme El Niño year like this one, we have a perfect formula for environmental catastrophe.

The president, Joko Widodo, is – or wants to be – a democrat. But he presides over a nation in which fascism and corruption flourish. As Joshua Oppenheimer’s documentary The Act of Killing shows, leaders of the death squads that helped murder a million people during Suharto’s terror in the 1960s, with the approval of the west, have since prospered through other forms of organised crime, including illegal deforestation.

They are supported by a paramilitary organisation with three million members, called Pancasila Youth. With its orange camo-print uniforms, scarlet berets, sentimental gatherings and schmaltzy music, it looks like a fascist militia as imagined by JG Ballard. There has been no truth, no reconciliation; the mass killers are still treated as heroes and feted on television. In some places, especially West Papua, the political murders continue.

Those who commit crimes against humanity don’t hesitate to commit crimes against nature. Though Joko Widodo seems to want to stop the burning, his reach is limited. His government’s policies are contradictory: among them are new subsidies for palm oil production that make further burning almost inevitable. Some plantation companies, prompted by their customers, have promised to stop destroying the rainforest. Government officials have responded angrily, arguing that such restraint impedes the country’s development. That smoke blotting out the nation, which has already cost it some $30bn? That, apparently, is development.

Our leverage is weak, but there are some things we can do. Some companies using palm oil have made visible efforts to reform their supply chains; but others seem to move more slowly and opaquely. Starbucks, PepsiCo, Kraft Heinz and Unilever are examples. Don’t buy their products until you see results.

On Monday, Widodo was in Washington, meeting Barack Obama. Obama, the official communiqué recorded, “welcomed President Widodo’s recent policy actions to combat and prevent forest fires”. The eco-apocalypse taking place as they conferred, which makes a mockery of these commitments, wasn’t mentioned.

Governments ignore issues when the media ignores them. And the media ignores them because … well, there’s a question with a thousand answers, many of which involve power. But one reason is the complete failure of perspective in a de-skilled industry dominated by corporate press releases, photo ops and fashion shoots, where everyone seems to be waiting for everyone else to take a lead. The media makes a collective non-decision to treat this catastrophe as a non-issue, and we all carry on as if it’s not happening.

At the climate summit in Paris in December the media, trapped within the intergovernmental bubble of abstract diplomacy and manufactured drama, will cover the negotiations almost without reference to what is happening elsewhere. The talks will be removed to a realm with which we have no moral contact. And, when the circus moves on, the silence will resume. Is there any other industry that serves its customers so badly?

Unmatched results with the innovative and skilled cosmetic surgery by Dr. Christian Drehsen

Nowadays, with the invention of newer techniques, doctors are able to save patients’ lives and give them a new hope. One such field where the aesthetic sense of a doctor works is cosmetic surgery. This is one of the leading fields in medical sciences and has changed lives of patients who have suffered scars or gruesome injury marks due to accidents or in burning cases. But more than that, cosmetic surgery has also proved a boon in many leading facial procedures too and Dr. Christian Drehsen has given it a modernized form.

Cosmetic Surgery – Changing lives of people

Everyone craves for their natural youthful look as they head towards the extreme of adulthood and most of the women for gaining back their natural looks get back to get the cosmetic surgery done. It is one of the modern concepts which has changed the lives of many patients not only the females but males are also using it to get best body results. Dr. Christian Drehsen has performed many modernized surgeries related to facial, breast, body procedures or even related to male body. He is an expert in facial uplift and has got expertise in various fields through which he has changed the lives and looks of his patients. Here are some of the procedures he follows:-

  • The Refresher Face Lift is one of the modernized and artistic facial techniques which are devised by him and which is far better than the standard face lift. It gives out unique results with natural looks and makes the person look beautiful than before.
  • If your skin has undergone any kind of hormonal change, damage from sun rays, ageing process, acne or other skin damaging agents then the stem cell treatment is surely going to benefit your skin. In this, the live stem cells are extracted from your own body and then it is injected into the area where stem cell enriched fat micro grafting treatment is to be done to give your facial procedure a newer look.
  • There are many other techniques which can be used for facial procedures and they are cosmetic lasers, dermal fillers, Botox, Dysport etc. which give rejuvenating looks to your face and give you youthful look.
  • Other facelift procedures include neck lifts, Defatting, Plication, Chin and Cheek implants etc.

Unique ways in which it has changed lives

Dr. Christian Drehsen who is a pioneer in the field of stem cell technique and has given a newer artistic concept of Refresher Face lift has made a difference in the lives of many people. He believes that the modern cosmetic science has come a long way from painful surgical techniques to the dynamic medical approach. It has helped people in many ways as:-

  • One gets their youthful look back without painful surgeries.
  • Restores pleasant expressions.
  • Maintenance of natural line and much more.

Lastly, the modern medical science has actually undergone a drastic change and gives fruitful results.

Brain damage seen in potent-marijuana smokers

People who smoke high-potency pot show signs of damage in a key part of their brain. The results of the new study, however, are limited. The brain scanning study was small. And it doesn’t show that marijuana caused the brain abnormality — only that the two go hand-in-hand.

But the finding suggests that potency matters, says Tiago Reis Marques. This coauthor of the study is a psychiatrist at King’s College London, in England. His team published its findings online November 27 in Psychological Medicine.

Just as vodka packs more of a punch than beer, a high-potency toke of cannabis — the name for the marijuana plant — delivers much more of the brain-active substance THC. That’s an abbreviation for tetrahydrocannabinol (TEH-trah-hy-drow-ka-NAB-ih-nol). It’s possible, Reis Marques says, that a bigger dose of THC simply may have stronger effects on the brain.

That’s important because as breeders have been improving their marijuana plants, THC levels have soared. Samples sold in Colorado, for instance, now have about three times as much THC as plants grown 30 years ago, a recent survey found.

The new study asked 43 healthy people to give a detailed history of their past drug use. About half said they smoke pot. These people then reported how potent that marijuana was. Reis Marques and his colleagues then scanned the brains of all participants. They used a method called diffusion tensor imaging. It shows the structure of white matter — neural highways that carry messages between different brain areas.

The corpus callosum — white matter linking the left brain to the right — is leakier in people who smoke high-potency pot, a new study finds.

TAbildskov/Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0)

People who reported using high-potency marijuana showed signs of damage in the corpus callosum. This is the major white matter tract that connects the left side of the brain to the right. Water molecules in the damaged corpus callosum diffused more easily than normal, a sign that its tissue had weakened.

This suggests a link between smoking high-potency pot and white-matter damage. But the study can’t prove that cannabis was to blame. “These people could have had deviant brain structures prior to use,” says Mitch Earleywine. He’s a psychologist of the University at Albany in New York. He also serves on the advisory board of NORML. (That’s the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws.) The new results might also be due to use of other mind-altering drugs, he says. Cocaine, for instance, has been tied to changes in the corpus callosum, notes Earleywine.

Because the experiment looked only at brain structures, it’s unclear whether these changes would affect brain function. For instance, there are no data on whether these changes were linked to memory problems, impulsive behaviors or depression.

It’s also not known whether pot’s THC content affects white matter elsewhere in the brain, says Hans Breiter. He’s a neuroscientist and psychiatrist at Northwestern University in Evanston, Ill. “This study leaves out what is occurring with the rest of the white matter,” he says. It will be important to look at other parts of the brain, he says. He’s particularly interested in possible impacts on regions linked to memory and other behaviors that marijuana might affect.

With the growing legal availability of supercharged marijuana, understanding exactly what it does to the brain is more important than ever, Reis Marques says. This is particularly true, he argues, for young people. They may not realize the marijuana they are using may be much more powerful than ever before. “We are in a stage where there is missing [health effects] information, or the information is changing fast,” he says.

Power Words

(for more about Power Words, click here)

Cannabis sativa   The Latin name of the plant whose leaves and seeds are smoked — as marijuana — to obtain a mind-altering “high.” The plant and drug products obtained from it are often just referred to as cannabis.

corpus callosum   A bundle of nerve fibers that connects the right and left sides of the brain. This structure allows the two sides of the brain to communicate.

depression   A mental illness characterized by persistent sadness and apathy. Although these feelings can be triggered by events, such as the death of a loved one or the move to a new city, that isn’t typically considered an “illness” — unless the symptoms are prolonged and harm an individual’s ability to perform normal daily tasks (such as working, sleeping or interacting with others). People suffering from depression often feel they lack the energy needed to get anything done. They may have difficulty concentrating on things or showing an interest in normal events. Many times, these feelings seem to be triggered by nothing; they can appear out of nowhere.

diffusion tensor imaging    A brain-imaging technique. It uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to see the brain’s white matter.

impulsive   (n. impulsivity) Quick to act; not willing to wait. Not waiting for deliberation or a weighing of consequences.

marijuana   A mind-altering drug. It is made from the leaves (and sometimes stems or seeds) of the Cannabis sativa plant.

neuroscience  Science that deals with the structure or function of the brain and other parts of the nervous system. Researchers in this field are known as neuroscientists.

pot    A slang term for marijuana.

psychiatry  (adj. psychiatric) A field of medicine where doctors study and treat diseases of the human mind. Treatments may consist of talking therapies, prescription drugs or both. People who work in this field are known as psychiatrists.

psychology  The study of the human mind, especially in relation to actions and behavior. To do this, some perform research using animals. Scientists and mental-health professionals who work in this field are known as psychologists.

tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC    The primary active ingredient in marijuana responsible for the mind-altering “high” associated with smoking or eating parts of the Cannabis sativa plant.

toke    A slang term for inhaling a quantity of smoke, usually marijuana smoke.

tract    A particular, well-defined area. It can be a patch of land, such as the area on which a house is located. Or it can be a bit of real estate in the body, such as some particular area in the brain.

white matter  One of the two main tissue types found in the brain and spinal cord. It consists mainly of bundles of nerve fibers.

Get the Best Medical Treatment for Your Illness

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If you are suffering from a certain kind of illness, why do not you try to choose an alternative healing treatment for your own health? You can try to choose Fort Lauderdale Florida Medical Marijuana. This is such a recommended alternative medical treatment that you can choose if you are living in Florida. They use the marijuana for the curing treatment. Never mind, since Florida Medical Marijuana Doctors has their authority for curing the patients by using the marijuana. They have the authority and license for using the marijuana to heal the sickness. In the other words, the doctors here have what called as Florida Medical Marijuana Cards. If you are interested, try to contact them for getting the further information about their service. Good luck to get the best treatment!

Bronze Age mummies unearthed in Great Britain

British mummy

Signs that ancient Britons mummified their dead were kept under wraps — until now.

The Bronze Age corpses had been buried at sites throughout Great Britain. Close inspection of their bones indicate the bodies had been intentionally mummified, a new study finds. The remains date to between about 4,200 and 2,750 years ago.

Thomas Booth of the Natural History Museum in London and his colleagues analyzed bones from 34 bodies. Sixteen showed little to no bacterial damage. That suggests mummification had blocked rapid decay of a corpse’s flesh, Booth’s team says. The researchers describe their findings in the October Antiquity.

The hot, dry climates of ancient Egypt and South America’s Andes preserved ancient mummies there. Such arid environments would have deprived gut microbes of the moisture they would have needed to survive long enough to break down tissue. But damp Britain would have offered corpses no such protection against such decay.

Analyses of these bones indicate in southern England they come from a body that was mummified during the Bronze Age. The skeleton’s curled up position suggests the body was bundled and stored before burial.

Cambridge Archaeological Unit

Mummies there would now consist of little more than skeletons — unless they had ended up in watery bogs. Then a lack of oxygen should have killed any gut bacteria.

At a time when ruling classes increasingly controlled farmland, mummies could have helped affirm a descendant’s ancestry, Booth says. This, he adds, may have helped uphold claims to ancestral lands and rights.

The new findings also “raise the question of how widespread such mummification might have been beyond Britain,” says Martin Smith. He’s an anthropologist at Bournemouth University in Poole, England.

How they determined mummification had occurred

Mike Parker Pearson works at University College London. He also is a co-author of the new study. Ten years ago, he led a research team that found evidence of Bronze Age mummies at a site in Scotland. There, too, no signs of bacterial decay emerged.

As an initial test of whether bones alone can identify mummification, Booth’s group examined ancient bones from two known mummies. One body came from an Irish peat bog. The other had dried out rapidly in a desert. It came from Yemen, a site in the southern Arabian Peninsula.

The Yemeni bones showed little bacterial damage. Slightly more — though not much — appeared on the Irish bones. In their case, tissue decay appears to have started before their body had been immersed in the bog. Other researchers have also reported little or no bacterial decay on bones from 10 mummified people. These included Ötzi the Ice Age man who died some 5,300 years ago. (His body was found in 1991, frozen in the Italian Alps.)

Concludes Booth, researchers now can confirm ancient mummification from bones alone. As such, he says, “There is such a thing as a mummified skeleton.” And that’s how his team came to view 16 of the Bronze Age skeletons it studied.

Included among them were bones from two graves at a site Parker Pearson had studied in 2005. They were on Scotland’s Outer Hebrides islands. The new findings now confirm Parker Pearson’s initial claim of mummification there. The findings also extend Bronze Age mummification into central and southern England.

Mummification appears limited to the Bronze Age

Parker Pearson and his colleagues had found that each burial at the Scottish site contained body parts from three different people. Radiocarbon dating indicates that those six individuals had died several hundred years before being buried beneath a building. And that was some 3,000 years ago.

Britain’s Bronze Age kicked off around 4,000 years ago.

Bones from bodies that decayed rapidly show extensive bacterial damage when viewed under a microscope. So did nearly all bones — mainly upper-leg bones — from 35 individuals buried at British farming villages from before that Bronze Age, Booth’s team found. They found the same true for 183 people laid to rest some 2,000 years after the Bronze Age. So mummification in Great Britain seems to have been a practice restricted to Bronze Age communities.

No one knows for sure how the corpses were mummified. Some bones show signs of exposure to low-level heat. These bodies may have been dried out in smokehouses, Booth says. Bronze Age communities probably also mummified bodies in bogs and by removing internal organs of the dead, he adds.

Storing the dead above ground for long periods would have slowed their decay, says Christopher Knüsel. He’s an anthropologist of the University of Bordeaux in France. Several Bronze Age skeletons now identified as mummified were buried with their legs tucked under their chins. To him, this suggests they had been bundled and stored somewhere before burial. Indeed, delayed burial for community leaders may have enabled extended funeral ceremonies and rituals, he says.

Power Words

(for more about Power Words, click here)

anthropology The study of humankind. A social scientist who studies different societies and cultures is called an anthropologist.

archaeology    The study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of artifacts and other physical remains.

arid   A description of dry areas of the world, where the climate brings too little rainfall or other precipitation to support much plant growth.

bacterial   Having to do with bacteria, single-celled organisms. These dwell nearly everywhere on Earth, from the bottom of the sea to inside animals.

bog   A type of wetland that forms peat from the accumulation of dead plant material — often mosses.

Great Britain    The territory of England and Wales. This is not the same thing as Britain, which refers only to England. It’s also not the same thing as the United Kingdom, which includes Northern Ireland in addition to all of Great Britain.

Briton    A resident of Great Britain (meaning England or Wales).

bronze A metallic alloy that consists primarily of copper and tin, but may include other metals. It is harder and more durable than copper.

Bronze Age     An archeological period that followed the Old and New Stone Ages. It was the first period in which ancient peoples started using metal. When this occurred varied around the world. In China and Greece, it happened at least 5,000 years ago. In Britain it occurred closer to 3,900 years ago. In the early stages, ancient peoples formed copper into useful tools. True bronze, a metal alloy formed from a mix of copper and tin, came later. Tin deposits in southern England led this region to become a major center of Bronze Age culture.

decay  The process (also called rotting) by which a dead plant or animal gradually breaks down as it is consumed by bacteria and other microbes.

microbe     Short for microorganism,a living thing that is too small to see with the unaided eye, including bacteria, some fungi and many other organisms such as amoebas. Most consist of a single cell.

mummify The process by which a corpse is preserved chemically or through drying. In many cases, communities have intentionally preserved certain members of their society. But bodies of some humans and animals have naturally mummified as the tissues dried out before microbes could degrade them (break them down, as by rotting).

peat    Largely decomposed plant material that develops in the absence of oxygen within a water-saturated site, such as a bog. When dried out, peat can be burned as a low-grade fuel.

radiocarbon dating   A process to determine the age of material from a once-living object. It is based on comparing the relative proportion, or share, of the carbon-12 to carbon-14. This ratio changes as radioactive carbon-14 decays and is not replaced.

tissue   Any of the distinct types of material, comprised of cells, which make up animals, plants or fungi. Cells within a tissue work as a unit to perform a particular function in living organisms. Different organs of the human body, for instance, often are made from many different types of tissues. And brain tissue will be very different from bone or heart tissue.

A Hospital That Saves Lives…And Trees

An open invitation to the villages calling all loggers for hire for construction on ASRI’s new Community Hospital Training Center (CHTC) is taking sustainable construction to the next level.

Well before ASRI broke ground on the CHTC, the staff had made sure to include a clause stating they will hire 40% of local labor during the duration of construction. The labor was defined as low-skill labor to people without construction training for work under the supervision and direction of the CHTC contractor. The jobs include excavation, block laying, and construction of temporary form work to support concrete.

ASRI has been committed to saving the rain forest by offering more options for illegal loggers to be trained in alternative livelihoods for the last 8 years. A common refrain heard from illegal loggers is, “We are ready to stop logging – but we still have to feed our families. Can you offer us other work?”

So when ASRI’s Hospital Construction Manager Edy Cahyadi was practicing “radical listening” with ASRI’s conservation team to learn how the hospital’s construction could support conservation – the team replied, “Please hire loggers.”

The construction team listened. They offered an open invitation to illegal loggers in the area to join the CHTC construction team. The local labor recruitment follows a three-tier system, which prioritizes loggers (Tier 1) before moving on to recruit area from the neighborhoods surrounding the hospital (Tier 2) or from the broader community (Tier 3).

Currently, there are 17 former loggers working on the hospital, and about 3-4 positions are being added every week as the construction progresses in phases. Positions will come and go, offering about 200 different jobs throughout CHTC construction; even though the call for hire has long been closed, not a week goes by without more community members registering their interest to join the construction team. The hospital construction labor force is constantly changing with phases of the complexity, and sometimes more technical work requires trained qualified individuals. In between phases, ASRI will provide as many jobs to loggers as possible. The low-skilled labor will take loggers out of their current work and provide them with new hard skill learning opportunities.

However, the transition from logging to construction has not been easy. One logger almost resigned on his first day – because he found the construction site to be brutally hot compared to the cool, shady environment of the forest. “I could hardly breathe because there was no wind entering the site at all,” he recalled. “But we have to do the best we can in the course we have chosen.” Other loggers agreed that the learning curve has been steep for them, but they have expressed determination to overcome all the physical and intellectual obstacles posed to them to succeed in this new line of work.

Interestingly, the recruitment process has provided many fascinating insights into the rationale of why loggers choose (or do not choose) to quit logging. These insights are helping the ASRI conservation team to re-tool each individual program to better target behavior change in illegal loggers.

For example, ASRI tracks the number of active illegal loggers in village surrounding the Park through its routine monitoring efforts to determine which villages are awarded the “red” and “green” status. However, after the CHTC call for hire ASRI discovered the numbers were higher than formerly documented. 63 active loggers have registered to join the construction team, many of which originated from villages where ASRI had previously counted only a handful of loggers. This new data has provided ASRI with a more accurate picture of the seasonal dynamics around logging – many of the individuals recruited for the hospital are not “full-time” loggers; they log in-between odd jobs, between crop harvests, and other times when they struggle to meet day-to-day needs.

This helps to make sure that all the villages receive a fair “red”, “yellow”, or “green” discount based on logging activities.

Following the completion of the CHTC, all the local laborers will be provided with certificates that certify the skills and expertise they have obtained during the construction phase. ASRI believes that this certificate will help the former loggers to secure further work with construction jobs – ensuring that they never need to pick up their chainsaws again once the hospital opens its doors.

In a recent interview with some of the ex-loggers in the community, ASRI found that all of them had some understanding on the negative impacts of logging the forests. Many of them acknowledged the trees bring water, and need water to live and to farm.